The acquisition of Turkish nationality is usually done in two ways: by birth or by subsequent acquisition.
1. Acquisition of citizenship by birth
Turkish nationality acquired by birth is the nationality acquired at the time of birth and is valid from the moment of birth on notification made.
The acquisition of Turkish nationality by birth is based on descent or place of birth.
1.1. Acquiring Turkish Nationality by Ancestry
Pedigree nationality refers to the acquisition of the nationality of the Turkish citizen mother or father with whom the child is related by descent at the time of birth.
In order for the child to acquire Turkish nationality through family ties, only one of the parents at the time of the child’s birth is sufficient to be a Turkish citizen. The fact that one of the parents is a citizen of a foreign state or that the child is born in a country other than Turkey does not prevent the acquisition of Turkish nationality.
Children born out of wedlock:
· If the mother has Turkish nationality from the moment of birth,
· If the father is a Turkish citizen, he becomes a Turkish citizen by the recognition of paternity or the judicial decision of paternity.
2. How to acquire turkish citizenship later
Acquisition of Turkish Nationality by Decision of the Competent Authority
The acquisition of Turkish nationality by the decision of the competent authority, must be by the following means:
· Acquisition of Turkish nationality by general means
· Exceptional acquisition of Turkish nationality
· To regain Turkish nationality
· Obtaining Turkish nationality through marriage
· By investing in real estate
Obtaining Turkish Nationality Through General Means
The admission of foreigners to Turkish nationality is generally done by the request of the foreigner fulfilling the required conditions and by the acceptance of this request by the state.
A foreign citizen who wishes to become a Turkish citizen may acquire Turkish nationality Upon decision of the competent authority if he fulfills the necessary conditions.
Behavior indicating that the person applying for citizenship decided to settle in Turkey:
In Turkey, buying real estate, investing, starting a business in Turkey or working in a business place, marrying a Turkish citizen, applying for Turkish citizenship by family, etc.are concrete behaviors that indicate the intention to settle in Turkey.
In this context, the application for citizenship of persons residing in Turkey for temporary purposes such as education, tourist or temporary business trips and treatment is not accepted.
Determination that the person applying for citizenship has good morals:
Whether the person is punished for crimes such as smuggling, fraud, theft or for disturbing the social order, or for acts such as using drugs and prostitution contrary to Turkish customs and Customs and family life, is determined whether the person has good morals or not.
In the same way, being tried, convicted or imprisoned for any crime is the reason that the application for citizenship is rejected.
In practice, the condition of not having a state that would constitute an obstacle in terms of national security and public order is determined by the registry survey to be conducted by the National Intelligence Organization and the General Directorate of security.
The determination that the person does not have an obstacle to national security and public order is made in this way for all types of citizenship applications for which this requirement is sought.
* Foreigners who wish to acquire Turkish citizenship, together with the conditions mentioned above, may also be required to withdraw their citizenship from the state they carry. It is the authority of the Council of Ministers to determine the principles relating to the use of this discretion.
* In the acquisition of Turkish citizenship, applications are made to the governorship where the residence is located in the country, and to the foreign representative offices abroad in person or by special power of attorney regarding the exercise of this right.
* Carrying the required conditions does not provide an absolute right to acquire citizenship.
2.1.2. Exceptional Acquisition Of Turkish Citizenship
Foreigners with certain characteristics, although they do not have the general conditions required for naturalization, have been given the opportunity to be granted Turkish citizenship by exceptional means.
Foreigners who can acquire Turkish citizenship through exceptional citizenship:
* Those who have established an industrial facility in Turkey or who have passed or are thought to have passed outstanding service in scientific, technological, economic, social, sporting, cultural and artistic fields and who have been offered reasoned for their rights by the relevant ministries.
• The necessity of international relations and the interest of our country or for any reason, it is necessary for the Council of Ministers to acquire Turkish citizenship
* Those who are considered immigrants according to the settlement law.
According to the settlement law, the immigrant refers to those of Turkish ancestry and the person who came to Turkey alone or collectively for the purpose of settling in Turkish culture and was considered an immigrant under the settlement law.
The Council of Ministers decides who belongs to Turkish nobility and Turkish culture. Balkan immigrants were accordingly granted Turkish citizenship.
* Persons applying for exceptional citizenship should not be found to be an obstacle to national security and public order.
* Exceptional citizenship is granted by the proposal of the Ministry of Interior and by the decision of the Council of Ministers, regardless of other conditions.
2.1.4. Obtaining Turkish Citizenship By Marriage
Marriage to a Turkish citizen does not directly confer Turkish nationality.
marriage to a Turkish citizen depending on the claim of Turkish nationality, the marriage must last at least three years and must continue.
When these conditions are met, the person obtains the right to apply for Turkish citizenship.
A foreign spouse who marries a Turkish citizen has the right to apply to the competent authorities in order to acquire Turkish nationality through marriage, in the case of the preconditions mentioned above.
Gaining Turkish Citizenship With The Right To Choose
People who have lost their Turkish citizenship against their will depending on their parents can gain Turkish citizenship by exercising their right to choose.
* People who have lost their Turkish citizenship depending on their parents must apply for Turkish citizenship within three years of becoming an adult in order to become a Turkish citizen again using the right to choose.
* People who wish to become Turkish citizens by using the right to choose, use the right to choose with a petition to be given to the governorates in Turkey and to foreign representatives abroad.
The acquisition of Turkish citizenship by the right to choose is not subject to the acceptance decision of the competent authorities.
* Taking Turkish citizenship or leaving Turkish citizenship by using the right to choose does not affect the citizenship of the spouse.
Turkish Citizenship Gained Through Investment
Some significant changes were made to Turkish citizenship legislation through investment in 2018.
With the regulation amending the regulation on the implementation of the Turkish citizenship law published in the Official Gazette on 12 January 2017, applications and principles for foreign investors to acquire Turkish citizenship were determined.
Accordingly, the US dollar limit required for foreign investors to obtain Turkish citizenship was reduced.
For example, while the requirement of 1 million dollars was sought before, it is now possible to become a Turkish citizen by purchasing a 250 thousand dollar residence.
The determination of these monetary values shall be based on the effective sales rate of the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey and/or the cross exchange rate at the date of determination.
Types Of Turkish Citizenship Through Investment
What are the criteria for Turkish citizenship through investment, what are the types of obtaining Turkish citizenship through investment? In order to become a Turkish citizen by investing in accordance with the regulation mentioned above, the foreign investor must fulfill one of the following 6 conditions::
1) to make a fixed capital investment of at least US $ 500,000
2) to buy a real estate of at least 250.000 US dollars on condition that it is not sold for 3 years in the land registry.
3) create employment of at least 50 people
4) depositing deposits of at least US $ 500,000 to banks operating in Turkey for three years
5) to purchase government debt instruments of at least US $ 500,000 for 3 years
6) to purchase a real estate investment fund participation share of at least $ 500,000 or a venture capital investment fund participation share for at least three years.
However, the foreign investor will be able to make the investment in foreign currency or TL in exchange for the US Dollar specified in the conditions sought.